PITUITARY GLAND (Hypophysis)
Pituitary is a pea-shaped gland, its anterior part is attached to the hypothalamus with the help of hypophysical portal blood vessels and posterior part is attached to the axons of the hypothalamic neurons.
It is known as the master gland of our body.
Morphologically, pituitary gland is divided into 3 lobes:
- Anterior lobe or Pars interior
- Intermediate lobe or Pars intermedia
- Posterior lobe or Pars nervosa
HORMONES OF THE ANTERIOR LOBE
- Follicle Stimulating Hormone: It is abbreviated as FSH. In males, it helps in the sperm formation and in females it helps in stimulating follicular growth in the ovaries.
- Luteinising Hormone: It is abbreviated as LH. In males, it helps in testosterone production through interstitial cells in the testes. However, in females, it helps in the production of estrogen from mature ovarian follicle and progesterone from the corpus luteum.
FSH and LH are altogether known as Gonadotrophins or Gonadotrophic Hormones (GTHs)
- Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: It helps in the production of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland.
- Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH) or Adrenocorticotrophin: It helps in the production of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid hormones from the adrenal cortex.
- Somatotrophic or Growth Hormone (GH) or Somatotrophin: It helps in the production of the growth hormone.
- Prolactin Hormone (PH) or Luteotrophic Hormone (LTH): It helps in the growth of milk glands during pregnancy and secretion of milk during delivery.
HORMONES OF THE INTERMEDIATE LOBE
- Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH): It helps in synthesizing the melanin which is the skin pigment of Humans.
HORMONES OF THE POSTERIOR LOBE
- Oxytocin: It is abbreviated as OT. It helps in inducing contractions of the uterus muscles and release of milk from the mammary glands. Thus, it is also known as birth hormone and milk ejecting hormone.
- Vasopression: It is also known as the anti-diuretic hormone.
Questions helpful for competitive exams:
Q.1. Which gland is known as the master gland of our body:
- Thyroid gland
- Pituitary gland
- Adrenal gland
Q.2. Which hormone is known as the anti-diuretic hormone:
Q.3. Which hormone synthesizes melanin:
Q.4. Which hormone synthesizes growth hormone:
- Somatotrophic Hormone
Q.5. Which hormone is known as the milk ejecting hormone:
Q.5. Intermediate lobe of pituitary is also known as:
- Pars nervosa
- Pars interior
- Pars intermedia
- Pars centralis