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What is Brownian Movement


Anything which occupies space and has mass is known as matter. For eg, air, water, milk, hydrogen. Everything around us is made up of tiny particles. The particles which make up the matter are known as atoms. These small particles are in constant motion, which is known Brownian movement.


The zig-zag movement of the small particles suspended in a liquid or a gas is known as Brownian movement. It increases with increase in temperature.

For e.g. when a beam of sunlight enters a room, we can see tiny dust particles suspended in air which are moving very randomly in a haphazard way.


  • Matter is made up of particles.
  • The particles of matter are very small.
  • The particles of matter have spaces between them.
  • The particles of matter are constantly moving.
  • The particles of matter attract each other.


There are 3 states of matter, they are:

  1. SOLID: In solid, volume and shape remains same, it does not change. They are the rigid form of matter. Rigid means unbending or inflexible.
  2. LIQUID: In liquid, volume remains same, but shape changes with the shape of the container.

Solid and Liquid matter does not show compression.

  1. GAS: In gas, neither volume nor shape is stable both changes with the shape of the container. Gaseous matter shows compression.

Liquid and Gas are the fluid form of matter, because they can flow easily and require a container to acquire a specific shape.

Diffusion occurs in all the 3 states of matter. The rate of diffusion is directly proportional to temperature.



States of Matter
States of Matter

Q.1. When matter combines in a fixed ratio, then it is known as:

  1. Element
  2. Atom
  3. Compound
  4. Reactant.

Ans. c

Q.2. Which movement is exhibited by the atoms:

  1. Sliding movement
  2. Chemical movement
  3. Wriggling movement
  4. Brownian movementd


Q.3. Name the 3 states of matter:

  1. Solid
  2. Liquid
  3. Gas
  4. All

Ans. d

Q.4. Diffusion is exhibited by:

  1. Solid
  2. Liquid
  3. Gas
  4. All

Ans. d

Q.5. Diffusion-

  1. increases with temperature
  2. decreases with temperature
  3. no effect with temperature.
  4. both b and c

Ans. a

Q.6. Compression is shown by:

  1. Solid
  2. Liquid
  3. Gas
  4. All

Ans. c

Q.7. Smallest particle of a matter is:

  1. Atom
  2. Compound
  3. Element
  4. Homogeneous matter

Ans. a

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